Standardization of the safest manufacturing

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Standardization of safe manufacturing

there are two conditions for realizing safe manufacturing: first, the production environment is safe; First, the safety of production and manufacturing system. The manufacturing system composed of safety equipment is the basis of safety. In fact, the safety of manufacturing system is much more complex than environmental safety, but no matter how complex the system is, it should have the ability to integrate the relevant necessary safety requirements, so as to achieve intrinsic safety and protect human safety and health. To judge whether a system is intrinsically safe, it should be designed and manufactured according to the different characteristics of the manufacturing system, with reference to the relevant safety standards, and check and confirm that it finally meets or meets the safety requirements in the relevant standards

the emergence of European unified safety standards

in Europe, there are three institutions that can formulate standards on behalf of the European Commission, namely cen (European Standards Committee), CENELEC (European Electrical Engineering Standards Committee), ETSI (European Communication Standards Committee). These three European standards institutions can formulate various necessary standards alone or in cooperation with the other two institutions

it has always been an urgent requirement to reasonably deal with the coordination and unification of safety and health standards related to machines. With the beginning of the same market in the European Union in January 1993, the original economic and trade barriers between countries were broken, and the free exchange of individuals and the free market of capital and services were realized. In the previous European market, there were serious barriers to the trade of machines across national borders, mainly due to different security requirements for machines from country to country. Therefore, one of the main tasks of the EU is to carry out unified coordination, so that one machine can be applied to the different requirements of other countries. This coordination is standardization. Thanks to Cen and CENELEC, the two major European standard setting organizations, which have standardized the standards among EU Member States, today's European machine directive and a large number of relevant machine and equipment safety standards have been produced

like other standards, these new unified safety standards are formulated by Cen and CENELEC. The most important one about manufacturing is machine instructions. The purpose of the machine directive is that there is a unified standard for machines and safety components circulating in the EU market, and each member state does not need to set up commercial trade barriers, including different safety standards. Most safety related standards also take en as the starting mark, such as en292 and en1054 related to hazard assessment; En954 standard for basic safety requirements; Standard en999 for determining safety distance, etc. In general, the European machine directive contains hundreds of standards. In order to better manage and compile these standards, the European Standards Agency divides them into three different hierarchies: Class A standards (basic standards), class B standards (class standards) and class C standards (product standards). Class a standard specifies the basic standards that all machines must comply with. Under the class a standard, it is a class B standard that refers to the class a standard and stipulates various types of machines. The class B standard does not aim at a specific machine, but stipulates the commonness of the whole category of machines. On the basis of no need to spend more money to buy microcomputer controlled class B standards, a large number of class C standards have been formulated, and each class C standard has made detailed provisions for a specific machine device. In addition, class B standard is divided into B1 Standard and B2 Standard. B1 standard stipulates the parameters related to safety protection, such as safety distance, surface temperature, noise, etc; B2 Standard specifies the specific requirements for safety protection devices, such as two handed buttons, safety door switches, safety carpets, etc

the contents of all these European standards (EN standards) are included in the national standards of various countries without modification (such as German DIN standards and VDE specifications, etc.), so that these standards can be implemented in all countries. Of course, the new standardization first regulates those regions and other situations that need to be coordinated and unified; As for those requirements that vary greatly from country to country, region to region, they cannot be unified and coordinated at all, and may be left over in the future. As existing national standard requirements, they need mutual recognition between countries. With the continuous development of the times and the emergence of new requirements, the standards also change dynamically and constantly add new content. So standardization is a dynamic process

"CE" mark

all machines and equipment entering EU member states have a common feature: the "CE" mark is pasted in a striking position. Machinery and equipment with "CE" mark can be considered to meet the requirements of European directives and can be freely traded, circulated and used in EU Member States. However, the manufacturer's products must meet the requirements of these standards, and the safety of the equipment must be fundamentally guaranteed. The standards commonly used in various European countries can guide manufacturers to obtain CE marks for their products. However, for manufacturers outside Europe, there are two ways to obtain the "CE" mark: first, the user invites a third-party authority (such as TUV) to evaluate the products and equipment to meet the safety requirements of relevant machines in the European Union, which issues the "CE" mark and pastes it on the eye-catching position of the machine. This method is the most commonly used and effective. The second method is to completely record the safety satisfaction records of a series of processes from conception, design, assembly, commissioning, packaging, transportation, instruction writing, etc. according to the safety requirements of the European Union, so that the relevant institutions of the European Union can access and recognize them at any time. If the manufacturer believes that his machine and equipment fully meet the relevant safety requirements, he must issue a statement, promising that the equipment meets those standards, and is willing to bear the losses caused to users by product failure within this range. This means that the manufacturer or supplier of the equipment must bear joint legal and civil liabilities for the safety of the equipment. This statement is not only for equipment outside the EU Member States, but also applies to equipment inside the EU Member States. Moreover, these procedures are very cumbersome and complex. Therefore, most equipment manufacturers adopt the way of third-party certification

coordination of European and international security standards

in order to make Europe a stronger competitive partner outside North America and ASEAN, the EU will try its best not to add additional burden to its products in international circulation. Just as in the EU Member States, there are a large number of different requirements for machine safety, which will not be unified soon. In the future, the matrix of fiber reinforced resin matrix composites will continue to play a very important role in composites. In order to achieve greater harmonization of standards, the EU has considered the integration with international rules outside Europe and on a global scale. Among them, ISO and IEC are two important institutions to formulate machine standards. IEC organization has rarely formulated standards related to safety requirements. In the past, ISO mainly focused on performance and appearance dimension standards, as well as lower safety standards. The standards of electrical engineering have been stipulated in IEC as early as possible. As long as the IEC standards are slightly modified, they can reach the level of CENELEC. In recent years, the EU has actively cooperated with these international standardization organizations to jointly promote the realization of a unified international security strategy and universal security requirements. It can be found that the European machine safety standards are not only practical, but also have little difference with the current international standards. This is mainly because many international safety standards are formulated based on European standards. The same problem is that it is unrealistic and not easy to realize the complete integration of existing standards in various countries and regions on a global scale. With the initiative of Europe in the current situation and the mutual coordination and coordination between international standards organizations, we will see that some international standards will appear in the face of ISO en XXXX, or EN ISO XXXX. This method makes the international standards and European standards more perfectly combined and can be applied to a wider range

with safety technical standards, there are principles that must be followed. PC materials have become the preferred plastics and specifications for automotive lighting systems. In particular, safety standards must be mandatory. Whether the standards are local, national or international, they must be backed up by relevant laws. Otherwise, security is just "on paper" and cannot truly reflect the effectiveness of security protection. Therefore, security technical standards supported by legal protection are not only the requirements of international circulation, but also the only way for security standards to be authoritative and inviolable, In order to truly realize "safety in system, protection for man and machine"

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